Developing precise travel behavior models is important for estimating traffic demand and, consequently, for planning transportation systems. A study is presented that suggests a hybrid model that combines a stochastic model with a neuro-fuzzy inference system. The model is applied for estimating traveler behavior in the context of the problem of transport mode choice.

Particularly, the multinomial logit model with neuro-fuzzy utility functions is developed to investigate shopping traveler preferences regarding the modes of bus, subway, and automobile.

The model is evaluated by comparing its results with the results of a multinomial logit model. Moreover, the probabilities of selecting a transport mode obtained by applying the two models are compared with the actual transport mode choices, which show better performance of the proposed model. In addition, the model demonstrates good performance by estimating a large number of right choices during the validation process. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates the influence of time variations of mode subway on the probabilities of selecting a transport mode.

The analysis highlights different behaviors of the models caused by the different utility functions. The results confirm that the proposed model can describe uncertainties regarding traveler decisions on the time of transport mode choice. Toggle navigation Menu. Development of Transport Mode Choice Model by Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Developing precise travel behavior models is important for estimating traffic demand and, consequently, for planning transportation systems.This can be extended to model several classes of events such as determining whether an image contains a cat, dog, lion, etc.

Each object being detected in the image would be assigned a probability between 0 and 1, with a sum of one. Logistic regression is a statistical model that in its basic form uses a logistic function to model a binary dependent variablealthough many more complex extensions exist.

In regression analysislogistic regression [1] or logit regression is estimating the parameters of a logistic model a form of binary regression. In the logistic model, the log-odds the logarithm of the odds for the value labeled "1" is a linear combination of one or more independent variables "predictors" ; the independent variables can each be a binary variable two classes, coded by an indicator variable or a continuous variable any real value.

The corresponding probability of the value labeled "1" can vary between 0 certainly the value "0" and 1 certainly the value "1"hence the labeling; the function that converts log-odds to probability is the logistic function, hence the name.

The unit of measurement for the log-odds scale is called a logitfrom log istic un ithence the alternative names. Analogous models with a different sigmoid function instead of the logistic function can also be used, such as the probit model ; the defining characteristic of the logistic model is that increasing one of the independent variables multiplicatively scales the odds of the given outcome at a constant rate, with each independent variable having its own parameter; for a binary dependent variable this generalizes the odds ratio.

In a binary logistic regression model, the dependent variable has two levels categorical. Outputs with more than two values are modeled by multinomial logistic regression and, if the multiple categories are orderedby ordinal logistic regression for example the proportional odds ordinal logistic model [2]. The logistic regression model itself simply models probability of output in terms of input and does not perform statistical classification it is not a classifierthough it can be used to make a classifier, for instance by choosing a cutoff value and classifying inputs with probability greater than the cutoff as one class, below the cutoff as the other; this is a common way to make a binary classifier.

Logistic regression is used in various fields, including machine learning, most medical fields, and social sciences. Conditional random fieldsan extension of logistic regression to sequential data, are used in natural language processing.

Let us try to understand logistic regression by considering a logistic model with given parameters, then seeing how the coefficients can be estimated from data. However in some cases it can be easier to communicate results by working in base 2, or base To be concrete, the model is. A group of 20 students spends between 0 and 6 hours studying for an exam.

How does the number of hours spent studying affect the probability of the student passing the exam? The reason for using logistic regression for this problem is that the values of the dependent variable, pass and fail, while represented by "1" and "0", are not cardinal numbers.

The table shows the number of hours each student spent studying, and whether they passed 1 or failed 0.Mark L. His research focuses on labour market behaviour and outcomes. Stephen P. His research focuses on income and labour market dynamics, inequality, and poverty. Bryan, Stephen P.

We point out problems with the assessment of country effects that appear not to be widely appreciated, and develop our arguments using Monte Carlo simulation analysis of multilevel linear and logit models. With large sample sizes of individuals within each country but only a small number of countries, analysts can reliably estimate individual-level effects but estimates of parameters summarizing country effects are likely to be unreliable.

Multilevel modelling methods are no panacea. The most popular quantitative approach is regression analysis of harmonized data from multiple countries in which individual-level outcomes are modelled as a function of both individual-level and country-level characteristics observed and unobserved. Some of the multi-country data sets that are commonly used in contemporary social science research are listed in Table 1.

In each of them, there is a natural hierarchy with observations at the individual level nested within a higher level countries. The data sets typically contain thousands of individuals per country but the number of countries is small, at most around The number of countries used in analysis is often fewer, nearer 20 and sometimes less, because of missing data or analytical focus. Note : the number of countries per data round is indicative only, as the number of countries can vary from round to round.

The number of countries in data sets used by researchers is usually smaller than the maximum available, and often around 25 or fewer. Multi-country data sets are attractive because they offer a means of quantifying the extent to which differences in outcomes reflect differences in the effects of country-specific features of demographic structure, labour markets, and other socio-economic institutions such as tax-benefit systems, which are distinct from the differences in outcomes associated with variations in the characteristics of the individuals themselves.

The popularity of regression analysis of multilevel country data is illustrated by the European Sociological Review. Of the articles published between andapproximately 75 exploit multilevel data sets with individual respondents within countries.

Beyaz yalan episode 3 english subtitlesMultilevel models, also known as hierarchical models or mixed models, are used in 43 of the 75 articles 57 per cent; or 13 per cent of all articles.

There are articles based on regression analysis of multilevel country data in other social science journals as well e.

Prodotti – ormashopThe topics addressed vary widely, ranging from labour force participation and wages to political and civic participation rates, and social and political attitudes. We believe that many researchers do not appreciate the problems that can arise when the number of countries in a multi-country data set is small.

This article analyses the number-of-countries issue in detail, considering when multilevel model estimates of individual- and country-level effects and their standard errors SEs can be trusted, with the exposition intended to be accessible to applied researchers without specialist statistical knowledge.

The intuition underlying our arguments is relatively straightforward, however. In particular, a large number of countries is needed to estimate country effects reliably. In section 2, we review regression approaches to modelling individual and country effects from multilevel country data, including multilevel modelling.

The literature on the performance of multilevel estimators and sample size is reviewed in section 3.

Because most of this literature does not cover the data structure of interest here, we present our own Monte Carlo simulation analysis of how multilevel estimator performance varies as the number of countries varies, for both linear and binary logit models, drawing out some rules of thumb section 4. In section 5, we summarize our findings and make recommendations.The widely used discriminant models currently for financial distress prediction have deficiencies in dynamics.

Based on the dynamic nature of corporate financial distress, dynamic prediction models consisting of a process model and a discriminant model, which are used to describe the dynamic process and discriminant rules of financial distress, respectively, is established.

The operation of the dynamic prediction is achieved by Kalman filtering algorithm. And a general -step-ahead prediction algorithm based on Kalman filtering is deduced in order for prospective prediction. Research on financial distress prediction FDP is an important area of corporate finance.

Early prediction methods are univariate analysis UAmultiple discriminant analysis MDAlogistic model, probit model, and so on [ 1 — 5 ]. With the development of computer technology, some new methods based on artificial intelligence technology with distributed computing capabilities that can deal with problems of nonlinear systems are widely introduced into the field of financial distress prediction.

Each model established for financial distress prediction, whether based on statistical methods or artificial intelligence methods, has advantages and disadvantages under different conditions. MDA has the advantage of simplicity and good interpretation, but the deficiency in its application limited by strict assumptions that sometimes cannot be satisfied.

Besides, MDA is a static discriminant model [ 2361516 ]. For the application of BPNN, it does not need any probability distribution assumption. BPNN is considered as an effective tool of pattern recognition for nonlinear systems. So many researchers have tried to apply triple BPNN in financial distress prediction, using the nonlinear pattern recognition capability of BPNN for classification of different financial state [ 7815 ]. The prediction was often achieved through a cross-sectional analysis at different time points.

That is, the sample data of period before financial distress is studied by BPNN, respectively, and the features are extracted, based on what the judgment for the financial state of next new period is made [ 16 — 18 ]. This treatment is a relatively complete cross-sectional analysis. But the conclusions on discrimination among different time points are lack of logistic links.

So this prediction is not completely dynamic. Furthermore, BPNN is a static neural network even when directly used in time-series prediction.

Neural networks can be divided into static or dynamic neural networks based on whether they contain feedback loops or delay.

BPNN is a backpropagation network without feedback and belongs to static neural networks.Metrics details. Logistic random effects models are a popular tool to analyze multilevel also called hierarchical data with a binary or ordinal outcome.

Here, we aim to compare different statistical software implementations of these models. We then compared the implementations of frequentist and Bayesian methods to estimate the fixed and random effects. Three data sets the full data set and two sub-datasets were analysed using basically two logistic random effects models with either one random effect for the center or two random effects for center and trial.

For the ordinal outcome in the full data set also a proportional odds model with a random center effect was fitted.

Direzione generale biblioteche e diritto dautore comitati nazionaliThe packages gave similar parameter estimates for both the fixed and random effects and for the binary and ordinal models for the main study and when based on a relatively large number of level-1 patient level data compared to the number of level-2 hospital level data. However, when based on relatively sparse data set, i.

The software implementations differ considerably in flexibility, computation time, and usability. There are also differences in the availability of additional tools for model evaluation, such as diagnostic plots.

The experimental SAS version 9.

Atlas game glitchesOn relatively large data sets, the different software implementations of logistic random effects regression models produced similar results. Thus, for a large data set there seems to be no explicit preference of course if there is no preference from a philosophical point of view for either a frequentist or Bayesian approach if based on vague priors.

The choice for a particular implementation may largely depend on the desired flexibility, and the usability of the package. For small data sets the random effects variances are difficult to estimate.

In the frequentist approaches the MLE of this variance was often estimated zero with a standard error that is either zero or could not be determined, while for Bayesian methods the estimates could depend on the chosen "non-informative" prior of the variance parameter. The starting value for the variance parameter may be also critical for the convergence of the Markov chain.

Peer Review reports. Hierarchical, multilevel, or clustered data structures are often seen in medical, psychological and social research. Examples are: 1 individuals in households and households nested in geographical areas, 2 surfaces on teeth, teeth within mouths, 3 children in classes, classes in schools, 4 multicenter clinical trials, in which individuals are treated in centers, 5 meta-analyses with individuals nested in studies.

Multilevel data structures also arise in longitudinal studies where measurements are clustered within individuals. The multilevel structure induces correlation among observations within a cluster, e. An approach to analyze clustered data is the use of a multilevel or random effects regression analysis. There are several reasons to prefer a random effects model over a traditional fixed effects regression model [ 1 ]. First, we may wish to estimate the effect of covariates at the group level, e.

With a fixed effects model it is not possible to separate out group effects from the effect of covariates at the group level. Secondly, random effects models treat the groups as a random sample from a population of groups.

## st: SAS versus Stata, Panel Study Logit models

Using a fixed effects model, inferences cannot be made beyond the groups in the sample. Thirdly, statistical inference may be wrong. Indeed, traditional regression techniques do not recognize the multilevel structure and will cause the standard errors of regression coefficients to be wrongly estimated, leading to an overstatement or understatement of statistical significance for the coefficients of both the higher- and lower-level covariates.

All this is common knowledge in the statistical literature [ 2 ], but in the medical literature still multilevel data are often analyzed using fixed effects models [ 3 ]. In this paper we use a multilevel dataset with an ordinal outcome, which we analysed as such but also in a dichotomized manner as a binary outcome. Relating patient and cluster characteristics to the outcome requires some special techniques like a logistic or probit, cloglog, etc random effects model.We booked this trip through Nordic Visitor and were very happy we did.

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### Development of Transport Mode Choice Model by Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

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### Dynamic Prediction of Financial Distress Based on Kalman Filtering

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